Fall of the Abbasid DynastyThroughout the period of the crusades the Muslim generals and soldiers showed the entremets sympathy and kindness, patience and preservence, forgiveness and gentleness, and above all, the chivalrous spirit. During this time the Khalifa of Baghdad were involved in their internal struggle. When their country was threatened by the Crusaders, they paid no head to it. They were passing their days idly and extravagantly. This mode of life continued till the capture of Baghdad by Halaqu, a grand son of Changiz Khan, who devastated the city and killed A-MustaSim, the last kalifa of the Abbasid dynasty in 1258 A.D. Thus the long reign of the Abbasid dynasty came to an end.
CAUSES OF THE FALL OF THE Abbasid dynasty
To trace the causes of the downfall of the Abbasid dynasty is to recount the doing of the Khalifas. Most of the later Khalifas of this dynasty led pompous and luxurious life and cared little for the state. Instead of making any attempt to uplift the condition of the subjects and to improve the government, they devoted their valuable time to wine, women and music. Moreover, they lost the vigor and energy to hold the scepter as their blood became diluted with that of the conquered.
The supremacy of the Turks in the later period was one of the causes of the fall of the empire. After the death of Mutawakkil the power of the Turks began to increase rapidly and the successors of Mutawakkil could not resist it. The Arabs and the Persians became disgusted with their high handed policy. The result of this alienation was the established of a number4 of independent states which proved fatal to the empire.
The negligence of the military department under the later Khalifa greatly contributed to the downfall of the Abbasids. The success and stability of the empire depends on military strength.
The relation between the province and the central government was not cordial. In many cases the provincial governors endeavored to defy the authority of the centre and declared their independence.
The struggle between the Arabs and non-Arabs between the Muslims and non-Muslim was going on in full swing during this period. The Iranians who were favored by the Abbasids despaired the Arabs and the Arabs despaired the Iranians and other. The conquences was the division of the Muslims into several sects and thus the disintegration of the empire set in slowly but steadily.
Among several factors that led to the downfall of the empire, the economic factors were no less important. The imposition of taxes for the interest of the ruling class discouraged farming and industry and the constant bloody stripers left many a piece of cultivated land desolate and forlorn. The flood in Mesopotamia made the people hopeless and homeless. Besides this famine and epidemic decimated the population in many provinces.
To these causes of decay must be added the invasion of Halaqu, a grandson of Changez Khan who divested the city of Baghdad on such a scale that for three years the streets ran with blood and the water of the Tigris was dyed red for miles along the course. He killed the last Khalifa of this dynasty and massacred his family so much so that for the first time in its history the Muslim world was left without a Khalifa whose name could be cited in the Friday prayers.